Dr. Robert Klebe, one of my mentors, is and was a Texas visionary in 3D printed tissues. As we approach a medical revolution in printed tissues, we should keep in mind that many new concepts that seem to happen overnight were initiated decades prior.
He wrote, "Cells may be positioned in precise, predetermined patterns by a technique, termed cytoscribing, in which cell adhesion proteins are deposited on a substratum under computer control. Using standard office equipment, cells may be positioned within a cell diameter with the techniques described. Cytoscribing involves the use of either a computer-controlled ink jet printer or a graphics plotter to deposit cell adhesion proteins and monoclonal antibodies onto a substrate material. By selecting different cell adhesion proteins and methods that permit the formation of positive or negative patterns of cells (cytoscripts), two-dimensional tissues can be constructed. It is also demonstrated that an optical microlithography technique used in the semiconductor industry can be used to position cells with a precision of less than a micron. By utilizing the properties of cell adhesion proteins, both positive and negative cytoscripts of photoengraved images can be obtained. Techniques for the construction of three-dimensional tissues are described."
The year of publication was 1988 and this patent was filed in September of 1987.
Too often visionaries are demoted, sidelined, or worse ostracized.
Take the time to explore new ideas and listen to others ideas.